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Chapter 1

Mercantilism: More $ = more colonization. Keeps $ within treasury

Reasons For early European Expansion: new land, more $, extended power, more

Prince Henry The Navigator: Helped with new navigation tools. Commissioned
Portuguese soldiers to go around the Cape Horn. = more trade

St. Augustine: Spanish outpost in Fl. Oglethorpe tries to attack but is

Bio. And Cultural Exchange: English bring disease, Indian pop. Greatly
diminished. Europeans introduce new crops and domestic livestock. Natives
taught Europeans new farming techniques, and showed them new crops. English
bring new religion.

Impact of Spanish settlement: Cortez comes over, kills many Natives. They
fear it's the end of the world.

Development of Early Slave Trade in Africa: West Africans began selling
slaves to traders. Sugar Cane widely produced = more slaves needed. African
Kingdoms captured people from other kingdoms and sold them.

Protestant Reformation, Martin Luther/John Calvin: Martin Luther challenged
Protestant church on the idea that salvation could be gained through payment
of the church. Luther is excommunicated. Calvin brings the idea of
predestination. (Some people were elected to be saved).

English Reformation: King Henry VIII mad because Pope doesn't grant him a
divorce. So he breaks ties w/the Catholic Church and becomes the head of
Christian faith in his country. Mary becomes queen next, persecutes
Protestants (Bloody Mary). Then half-sister Elizabeth become queen and
severs nations connection with Catholic Church.

Puritans/Pilrims/Seperatists: Puritans want to purify the church: simply
forms of worship, reduce power of bishops, reform local clergy.  Separatists
were Puritans who took radical positions on this. They were determined to
worship as they pleased in their independent congregations.  Pilgrims go to
U.S. for freedom

Irish Experience: English considered the Irish wild beasts. It was a
common belief that their culture must be subordinated. The way Irish were
treated led to the practices that were used later w/the Natives; the English
must retain a culture separate from the native population.

French in early Settlement of North America: F. pop. Slow to grow, but has a
big impact. Developed close direct ties with Native Americans. French
Jesuits influence Natives in religion. French fur traders and trappers
(coureurs de bois) set up an extensive trade system. Intermarriage.