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Chapter 13

Manifest Destiny- Reflected the rising Nationalism in the American people. America destined by god and history to expand boundaries over a vast area. John L. Sullivan. American race superior. Publicized in "penny press."

Texas- Mexicans refused to sell. Mexicans hoped to strengthen economy by having American immigration into Texas. Thought that the Americans in Texas would soon become loyal to the Mexican Government. Majority were Southerners. Stephen F. Austin first legal American settlement. 1836 proclaimed independence from Mexico. Annexed in 1845.

Oregon- Oregon, Washington, and Idaho, parts of Montana and Wyoming and half of British Columbia. Joint access to territory between British and Americans. Mostly Fur traders. Some missionaries. Little success converting N.A's. N.A. attacked settlers for exposing Measles. 49th parallel.
Traveling West- Majority came from present day Midwest. Arduous journey taken by mostly families until Gold Rush. Families traveled for farming while single men traveled for lumbering. Dwindled during recessions. wagon trails led by guides. Lasted 6 months. Many died from Cholera. Very few Indian attacks. Indians were usually helpful.

Polk's Handling of Expansion- "the reoccupation of Oregon and re-annexation of Texas were great American measures. Obscure during election. Accepted Texas set Oregon boundary at 49th parallel by acting to not support it. Sent Army to protect Texas claim. Secretly dreamed of having CA.
CA issues that lead to war- Settlers went to CA and set up profitable trade and dreamed of bringing CA under U.S.

Mexican War- Mexicans crossed Rio Grande and attacked U.S. troops. Acquired CA and New Mexico and gave Mexico the Rio Grande border on Texas.

Gold in Cali- James Marshall found traces of gold in foot hills and couldn't keep it under wraps. Crazed excitement and greed. Some deserted farms to search. Attracted first Chinese immigrants. Created labor shortage in CA. Caused form of slavery on the Indians. CA become heterogeneous with races. Caused ethnic tension.
Sectionalism- CA adopted Constitution that prohibited slavery. "personal liberty laws" barred courts in the North from helping to return runaway slaves. Southerners wanted to respond with a national law that demanded return of runaway slaves. Balance was screwed up.

Comp. of 1850- CA free state, rest of Mexican land to be slave, Texas yield boundary dispute with New Mexico, slave trade abolished in D.C., and new fugitive slave law. Debate ensued and Great Triumvirate began to fall off. William H. Seward, Jefferson Davis, and Stephen A. Douglas. New leaders able to get it passed.
Kansas-Nebraska Act-  Nebraska and Kansas could be open if decided by popular sovereignty. Dissolved Whig Party. Caused the creation of the Republican party.

John Brown- Pro-slavery activists would come to Kansas just to elect pro-slavery legislature. John Brown viewed as an instrument of God to destroy slavery. Slaughtered many pro-slavery activists while they slept, Pottawatomie Massacre.  Also tried to take mountain fortress to make slave uprisings possible. Southerners used him as an example of the reason slavery must stay instated.

Sumner/Brooks Beating- Sumner made references to pro-slavery senator as a "Don Quixote" of slavery and Brooks beat the shit out of him with a cane. Both revered as heroes in the North and South.
Free labor and beginning of Republican Party-  North believed was the proper structure of society. Lyceum movement. Slavery threatened whites also because all citizens need to control their own property and labor at a small scale capitalism. Theory at the heart of the Republican Party. Believed in the rights of black freedom and citizenship.

Pro-Slavery Argument- Many southerners began to state that the blacks needed the guidance of white people. They were better clothed, fed, and housed argued Calhoun. Some also made the assumption that blacks were inferior. George Fitzhugh argued that all great societies ran on forced labor.

Dred Scott Decision- Dred Scott vs. Sanford. The Dred Scott case was a way for abolitionists to measure their support in the federal government.  Dred Scott was a test run, chosen to go to court by white abolitionists.  Dred Scott stated in court that he had been taken to a free state and took residence there for a period of time. Upon his return to Missouri, a slave state, he sued his master for his freedom.  The white abolitionists that put Scott up to the test were truly not concerned with the outcome of Scott but rather the future of slavery.  The Supreme Court was divided and was unable to hand down one ruling. Roger Taney, a slave owner himself, ruled that Scott wasn't a citizen of Missouri or of any state for that matter.  He ruled that Scott and all African-Americans were not citizens of the United States, they were property and had no authority to be in court.  He also ruled that if they were property that congress had no authority to take them away without "due process of law," under the Fifth Amendment.  This meant that the Federal Government could not stop the spread of slavery and that the abolitionists had no support politically.(copied and pasted from research paper)

Lincoln as Candidate- Leading Rep. in Illinois. Believed that slavery was morally wrong. Couldn't come up with alternative to slavery though. Wanted to arrest the expansion of slavery. Won 1860 election.