Manifest Destiny- Reflected the
rising Nationalism in the American people. America destined
by god and history to expand boundaries over a vast area.
John L. Sullivan. American race superior. Publicized in "penny
Texas- Mexicans refused to sell. Mexicans hoped to strengthen
economy by having American immigration into Texas. Thought
that the Americans in Texas would soon become loyal to the
Mexican Government. Majority were Southerners. Stephen F.
Austin first legal American settlement. 1836 proclaimed independence
from Mexico. Annexed in 1845.
Oregon- Oregon, Washington, and Idaho, parts of Montana and
Wyoming and half of British Columbia. Joint access to territory
between British and Americans. Mostly Fur traders. Some missionaries.
Little success converting N.A's. N.A. attacked settlers for
exposing Measles. 49th parallel.
Traveling West- Majority came from present day Midwest. Arduous
journey taken by mostly families until Gold Rush. Families
traveled for farming while single men traveled for lumbering.
Dwindled during recessions. wagon trails led by guides. Lasted
6 months. Many died from Cholera. Very few Indian attacks.
Indians were usually helpful.
Polk's Handling of Expansion- "the reoccupation of Oregon
and re-annexation of Texas were great American measures. Obscure
during election. Accepted Texas set Oregon boundary at 49th
parallel by acting to not support it. Sent Army to protect
Texas claim. Secretly dreamed of having CA.
CA issues that lead to war- Settlers went to CA and set up
profitable trade and dreamed of bringing CA under U.S.
Mexican War- Mexicans crossed Rio Grande and attacked U.S.
troops. Acquired CA and New Mexico and gave Mexico the Rio
Grande border on Texas.
Gold in Cali- James Marshall found traces of gold in foot
hills and couldn't keep it under wraps. Crazed excitement
and greed. Some deserted farms to search. Attracted first
Chinese immigrants. Created labor shortage in CA. Caused form
of slavery on the Indians. CA become heterogeneous with races.
Caused ethnic tension.
Sectionalism- CA adopted Constitution that prohibited slavery.
"personal liberty laws" barred courts in the North
from helping to return runaway slaves. Southerners wanted
to respond with a national law that demanded return of runaway
slaves. Balance was screwed up.
Comp. of 1850- CA free state, rest of Mexican land to be slave,
Texas yield boundary dispute with New Mexico, slave trade
abolished in D.C., and new fugitive slave law. Debate ensued
and Great Triumvirate began to fall off. William H. Seward,
Jefferson Davis, and Stephen A. Douglas. New leaders able
to get it passed.
Kansas-Nebraska Act- Nebraska and Kansas could be open
if decided by popular sovereignty. Dissolved Whig Party. Caused
the creation of the Republican party.
John Brown- Pro-slavery activists would come to Kansas just
to elect pro-slavery legislature. John Brown viewed as an
instrument of God to destroy slavery. Slaughtered many pro-slavery
activists while they slept, Pottawatomie Massacre. Also
tried to take mountain fortress to make slave uprisings possible.
Southerners used him as an example of the reason slavery must
Sumner/Brooks Beating- Sumner made references to pro-slavery
senator as a "Don Quixote" of slavery and Brooks
beat the shit out of him with a cane. Both revered as heroes
in the North and South.
Free labor and beginning of Republican Party- North
believed was the proper structure of society. Lyceum movement.
Slavery threatened whites also because all citizens need to
control their own property and labor at a small scale capitalism.
Theory at the heart of the Republican Party. Believed in the
rights of black freedom and citizenship.
Pro-Slavery Argument- Many southerners began to state that
the blacks needed the guidance of white people. They were
better clothed, fed, and housed argued Calhoun. Some also
made the assumption that blacks were inferior. George Fitzhugh
argued that all great societies ran on forced labor.
Dred Scott Decision- Dred Scott vs. Sanford. The Dred Scott
case was a way for abolitionists to measure their support
in the federal government. Dred Scott was a test run,
chosen to go to court by white abolitionists. Dred Scott
stated in court that he had been taken to a free state and
took residence there for a period of time. Upon his return
to Missouri, a slave state, he sued his master for his freedom.
The white abolitionists that put Scott up to the test were
truly not concerned with the outcome of Scott but rather the
future of slavery. The Supreme Court was divided and
was unable to hand down one ruling. Roger Taney, a slave owner
himself, ruled that Scott wasn't a citizen of Missouri or
of any state for that matter. He ruled that Scott and
all African-Americans were not citizens of the United States,
they were property and had no authority to be in court.
He also ruled that if they were property that congress had
no authority to take them away without "due process of
law," under the Fifth Amendment. This meant that
the Federal Government could not stop the spread of slavery
and that the abolitionists had no support politically.(copied
and pasted from research paper)
Lincoln as Candidate- Leading Rep. in Illinois. Believed that
slavery was morally wrong. Couldn't come up with alternative
to slavery though. Wanted to arrest the expansion of slavery.
Won 1860 election.