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Chapter 14

Beginnings of Secession:
As soon as Lincoln became pres., militants in S. showed "Southern
nationalism;"  South Carolina seceded 1st;  1861 7 seceded states formed
the Confederate States of America;  N. confused and indecisive;  S.
tried to take Fort Sumter in South Carolina but effort turned back by N.

Crittenden Compromise:
Submitted by Senator John Crittenden of Kentucky;  Called for several
constitutional amendments to guarantee permanent existence of slavery in
slave states and satisfy S. demands on fugitive slaves and slavery in
D.C.;  mainly to reestablish Missouri Compromise line in all present and
future territory: slavery below and free above;  not accepted by
Republicans b/c believed slavery couldn't expand;

Fort Sumter as Starting Point:
Union forces running out of supplies;  Lincoln informed South Carolina,
slave state, that he was only sending food supplies;  S. faced dilemma:
Permitting expedition would seem to show submission to fed. Authority &
firing on ships would seem to show aggression;  S. decided to try to
take island, by force if necessary;  N. refused to surrender but S.
bombarded it for 2 days;  N. surrendered and Civil War had begun

Methods of Paying for War in the North and South:
N. levying taxes, issuing paper money "greenbacks", and borrowing;
taxes raised only small proportion of necessary funds for war;
greenbacks backed not by silver or gold but by good faith and credit of
gov't = values fluctuated according to fortunes of N. armies;  largest
source of finances, loans from Amer people
S. impossible task to finance war;  created nat. revenue system,
small/unstable banks lent $; had to use paper currency= disastrous

Draft riots of 1863:
Used voluntary system before but didn't produce enough recruits;
Conscription seemed strange and ominous;  opposition from laborers,
immigrants, and "Peace Democrats;"  occasion violence;  rioted in N.Y.C.
for 4 days, after 1st names were drafted;  Over 100 died; Irish workers
at center of violence;  Irish blamed African Amer for war; lynched A.A.,
burned homes and businesses, and destroyed orphanage; fed. troops
subdued rioters

Why no Declaration of War?
Lincoln insisted on calling conflict a domestic insurrection, which
required no formal dec. of war;  to ask for a de. Would be recognize
Confed. as an independent nation;  sent troops into battle w/o a dec. of

Suppression of Dissent Against a War:
Lincoln ordered military arrests of civilian dissenters and suspender
right of habeas corpus(right to speedy trial); at 1st methods only used
in border states; 1862 declared all persons who discouraged enlistment
or engaged in disloyal practices were subject to martial law;  13,000
persons arrested and imprisoned, esp. Copperheads( Dem. Who opposed
war); Lincoln defied Supreme Court, when Taney issued a writ requiring
the release of imprisoned Maryland secessionist, Lincoln ignored it

Emancipation Proclamation
After Union victory at Antietam, prez announced intention to issue exec.
order freeing slaves in Confed. states;  Jan 1, 1863 signed Eman. Proc.,
which declared forever free slaves in all Confed. except those already
under Union control; did not apply to border states, which had never
seceded;  immediate effect limited; great importance b/c clearly and
irrevocably estd. War was not only being fought to preserve Union but
also to eliminate slavery;  As fed. Armies occupied much of S., proc.
Became reality and led directly to freeing of 1000s of slaves

Afriacan Amer in War:
186,000 emancipated blacks served as soldiers, sailors, and laborers for
Union forces, joining free blacks from N.;  after Eman. Proc. Black
enlistment increased rapidly; Union began to actively recruit A.A.
soldiers; 54th mass. Infantry, a fighting unit, had whiteommander:
Robert Gould Shaw; Shaw and 1/2 regiment died in battle in S.C.;  most
black soldiers assigned menial tasks behind lines, digging trenches, and
transporting H2O

Women's contribution to War Effort:
Took over positions vacated by men; teachers, clerks, etc.;  needed $;
many became nurses;  Dorothea Dix led U.S. Sanitary Commission;  found
war a liberating experience

States' Rights as an Obstacle to Centralization of power in S.:
Confed. Const. acknowledged sovereignty of individual states;  people in
poorer backcountry, where slavery limited;  obstructed the draft,
restricted Davis', Confed. prez, powers

The War in the West: Quantrill's Raiders
William Quantrill organized Confed. guerrillas, terrorized
Kansas-Missouri border;  killed everyone in path;  siege on Lawrence,
Kansas killed 150 civilians;

Major Battles:
Antietam: after battle Lincoln issued Emancipation Proclamation

Vicksburg: Grant attacked Vicksburg; 6 week siege; surrendered;  gave
Union control of Miss. R
Gettysburg: Confeds outnumber union troops;  Picket's Charge, Confed
soldiers advanced across mile of open territory while being sweptby
Union fire; Lee withdrew; turning point in war
Aherman's March to Sea:  left Atlanta;  Lived off land, destroyed
supplies they couldn't use; 60 mile wide trail of desolation across

Lee arranged to meet Grant at private home in town of Appomatox
Courthouse, Virginia;  April 9, surrendered