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Chapter 15

Goals of Recon/ differences:
To white Southerners it was destructive and vicious;  N. saw it as only
way to prevent S. from restoring S. society as it had been before;  for
A.A. small step to to secure civil rights

Lincoln's 10% Plan, Johnson's Restoration Plan, Radical Recon
Whenever 10% of # of voters in each state took of loyalty to gov't, they
could set up a state govt;  Johnson: high-ranking S. officials had to
personally ask him for pardon; in order to be readmitted to Union had to
revoke secession, abolish slavery, ratify 13th Amendment  Radical:
Congress' Recon plan, Black Codes (reestablish planter control over

13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments;
13th: no slavery or involuntary servitude
14th: all people born or naturalized in US are citizens
15th: right to vote shall not be denied on account of race, color, or
previous condition of servitude

Impeachment of Johnson
Radicals believed Johnson was serious impediment to their plans;  "high
crimes and misdemeanors" b/c he deliberately violated Tenure of Office
Act(forbade prez to removecivil officials w/o senate consent);impeached
on 11 charges; acquitted

Changes in South:
Dramatic improvement in S. edu;  Freedman's bureau helped blacks get
land;  efforts to rebuild family structures;

Crop lien, tenant farming:
Whatever gains made were overshadowed by crop lien;  credit from country
stores which had no competition, so set interest rate4s at 50 or 60
%;Farmers had to give merchants a lien(claim) on crops as collateral;
could become trapped in cycle of debt; lost land as they fell into debt;

Grant as Pres (lots of scandals):
Failure as prez;  liberal Republicans opposed him;  Credit Mobilier
scandal; Panic of 1873, failure of leading bank, debtors pressured govt
to inflate currency w/ greenbacks;  greatest success in foreign affairs

Rise of KKK
Enforcement Acts prohibited states from discriminating against voters on
basis of race;  authorized prez to use military to protect civil rights

Compromise of 1877:
20 disputed votes in the election between Hayes and Tilden;  special
electoral commission to judge diesputed votes;  5 senators, five reps,
and 5 Suprem court justices/ 7 Dem, 7 Rep, and 1 Independent; all 20
votes went to Hayes, he needed all 20 to win

Reconstruction's Legacy
Largely a failure; ran up against conservative obstacles;  Therefore,
A.A. had reason for pride for the gains that they were able to make

Booker T. Washington:
Chief spokesman for commitment to edu, and spokesman for race as a
whole; founder and prez of Tuskegee Institute in Alabama;  Born into
slavery, worked way out of poverty after getting education; urged blacks
to follow path  to self-improvement; message cautious and hopeful;
should attend school. Learns skills, and est. knowledge in agriculture
and trades; industrial, not classical education should be goal

Development of Jim Crow Society:
14th and 15th amendements stripped of significance; Plessy v. Ferguson;
whites working to strengthen white supremacy and separate races;poll tax
and lietracy test to vote

Plessy v. Ferguson:
Louisiana law that required separate seating arrangements for the reaces
on railroads, Court held that separates  accommodations did not deprive
blacks of rights if accommodations were equal, part of basis for
segregated schools; separate but equal