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Chapter 16

Plains Indians as heart of society in the West- A Diverse group of tribes and language groups. Some formed alliances with one another, others in constant conflict. Some lived sedentary lives as farmers, and others as highly nomadic hunters. Tribes were divided into bands with governing council, making important decisions. Within bands tasks were divided by gender. They survived by hunting buffaloes.

Hispanics in the West- Established farming and trading communities. They had a small aristocracy and trading was primarily cattle and sheep ranching.

Impact of Anglos on both Native Americans and Hispanics- Hispanics- They established their own territorial government excluding Mexican ruling class. Even without former power Hispanic society survived with Anglo-settlement. The United States helped break power of Apache, Navajo, and other tribes that had often harassed them. This now allowed Hispanics to migrate. Native Americans- New missions had enormous herds of cattle and a secular Mexican aristocracy arose, which controlled a large number of estates. Disastrous to them, and English-speaking prospectors worked to exclude them from mines during the gold rush. In the end, many lost their land.

Chinese in the United States- Came from poverty stricken land, some as "coolies"(indentured servants). Most came as free laborers. First welcomed them as conscientious hardworking people.

Nativism directed against Chinese- Turned hostile toward Chinese, because they were industrious, therefore saw them as threats. Included the Chinese in the "foreign miners tax". Majority of them helped build Railroads, after they formed various "china towns" around the west. Also some organized "tongs" or violent communities.

Chinese Exclusion Act- Banning Chinese Immigration, also banned those already in the country from becoming citizens. Believed this would help growing fear of unemployment.

Land acts created to encourage settlement- Homestead Act of 18620 allowed settlers to buy plots of 160 acres. For a small fee if they occupied land for 5 years and improved it. Timber Culture Act(1877)3) Allowed homesteaders to receive 160 additional acres if they planted 40 acres of trees. Desert Land Act(1877) 640 acres provided they irrigated part of their holdings.

Hierarchy of Working World- Class was highly multiracial white workers occupied upper tiers of employment: management and skilled labor. The lower tiers: unskilled and often arduos work in the mines, or the Railroads. Chinese, Mexicans, and Filipinos were suited to manual labor, and more accustomed to heat. Hierarchy much like East and was not very mobile.

Waves of Settlement: Mining- settlers hoped to make quick fortunes, boom very brief. First found gold in Pike Peak, prospectors swarmed areas it was resumed. These marked important developments in west. Most never ended up striking it rich. Ranching-Huge area on the Great Plains where cattle raisers could graze their herds free of charge. Cattle could be brought long way linking West with East. Many said you could profit, but the open-range industry quickly dwindled.

Cowboys as symbol of the West-Rugged free-spirited lifestyle that many associated with the West in contrast to the stable world of East. They didn't see the loneliness they felt, and the physical discomforts. They only saw his affinity with nature, and viewed him as a hero living the life of the natural man.

Place of the frontier in the American mentality-Considered it the last frontier, West was always comforting to those who wanted to start life anew. He said it ended an era in the nation's history era of free land. This stimulated individualism, nationalism, and democracy.

Treatment of Native Americans- "concentration" was where each tribe is assigned its own reservation. Then Indian Peace Commission moved in moving Plains Indians into 2 areas, one in Oklahoma, and another in the Dakotas. The buffalo supply was destroyed and killing the Indians source of food and supplies. Also hindered their ability to resist.

Series of Indian Wars- Sand Creek- One arapaho and Cheyenne band, ended in massacre. "Indian hunting" involved White vigilantes tracking down Indians and killing them. As proof they would bring back scalps and skulls. Little Bighorn- Famous conflict between Whites and Indians, the tribal warriors surprised Custer and his regiment. They killed everyone they could until they eventually couldnt keep up. Crazy horse surrendered. Chief Joseph's Trek- Persuaded followers to flee and reach Canada, unfortunately, they fled. Geronimo and Apache Wars-Most violent of all Indian conflicts, White miners mobbed the tribes. Ghost Dance- mass and emotional, many believed this brought visions that were mystical. Wounded Knee- The 7th calvary tried to round up a group of Sioux at Wounded knee, they began fighting. There was a one sided massacre against the Indians once machine guns were used against them.

Dawes Act- 1887 provided for the gradual elimination of tribal ownership of land. Also the allotment of tracts to individual owners. This only applied to the Western tribes.

Farming and its problems- Fencing- Needed to protect against the herds. Wood and stone were too expensive and would be ineffective against the cattle. Water- The land was very dry and they depended heavily on irrigation. Rainfall stopped completely. High Railroad rates were a problem because they were not as high in the North East. Also High interest rates for loans they desperately needed, and since prices of crops rose and fell there was great concern for their fortunes.