1. Spectrum of feelings re: independence and purpose
- Complete independence vs. Modest reforms for reconciliation;
on middle ground.
- Early reform sentiments become independence because of war
recruitment of NA, and English rejection of the Olive Branch
2. Olive Branch Petition
-Last conciliatory appeal to King passed by delegates at the
- British enact Prohibitory Act instead; Closes
American ports to trade.
3. Common Sense
-Authored by revolutionary propagandist Thomas Paine; first
written support of
Independence from Great Britain.
- Changes American outlook towards war; Common sense to break
with Great Britain
and its constitution.
- Increases support for Independence of colonists.
4. Declaration of Independence
- Formal Justification of break with England; July 2-July 4,
- Written at 2nd Continental Congress by Jefferson.
- Little in document is new; expresses ideas of colonies expressed
states and organizations.
- 2 parts: 1st Contract Theory of John Locke, government
is to protect life,
liberty, and property 2nd Enumeration of Crimes
- Inspired foreign movements and support (French)
- Encourages Patriots to reject peace.
5. Continental Army/Commander in Chief
- Difficult for US government to raise an army and supply forces;
no access to
- Finance war difficulties: Congress can not levy taxes, must
raise from states
who have little to give.
- Government must print money, as well did state governments;
government borrows from foreign nations.
- Few volunteers from army; states appeal with bounties or draft
- Congress creates Continental Army 1775 with one chief
instead of separate stated controlled forces.
- Washington is admired and respected by all patriots and dealt
difficulties of army: morale, a strong willed Continental Congress.
-Washington is a symbol of stability in an unstable nation that
leads a small
army to success.
6. Role of Native Americans
-Iroquois are declared neutral in Revolution, but sympathize
with British hoping
to stop movement of whites onto tribal lands.
-Joseph and Mary Brant: Mohawk leaders who convince their tribes
to support the
- Iroquois alliance with Great Britain shows division in tribe;
3 of 6 tribes
- Patriots strike against NA with strength in response to NA
- Turning point of the American Revolution for colonists, defeat
- Leads to an American alliance with France; France recognizes
the US as a
8. Yorktown/Cornwallis/Treaty of Paris 1783
- Washington, Rochambeau, and de Grasse defeat British lead
Cornwallis by land and sea at Yorktown, October 17, 1781.
- Cornwallis defeat at Yorktown lead to outrage in England
toward the war; Lord
Shelburne succeeds Lord North as Prime Minister.
- American alliance with France restricts a treaty with Britain
not agree until its ally Spain wins back Gibraltar and
so Americans break
alliance with France and make peace with Britain in 1782.
- Treaty of Paris: British and American final peace settlement
with French and
Spanish agreement to peace.
*Favorable terms to the United States: Britain recognizes the
United States as independent and cedes land from Canada to Florida,
Atlantic to the Mississippi.
- British occupational forces leave New York, 1783.
9. Wars impact on loyalists, women, NA
- During Revolution 1/3 to 1/5 of American were loyal to Britain:
imperial government, those who fear an independent American,
and others who
expected Britain to win.
- Loyalists were hounded by Patriots during the war and harasses
by judicial and
legislative actions; many move to England or Canada est.
Quebec some return
- Anglican suffer during Revolution because they are identified
and loose funding from both the states and Britain; weakened
greatly by the end
of the war.
- Quakers suffer politically and socially for pacifist beliefs
Revolution, are weakened.
- Revolution improves position of Roman Catholic Church who
and who are no longer persecuted; even gain a bishop to the
Vatican after the
- African American greatly affected by the Revolution: Many
are set free in the
South by British troops, and a majority are introduced to ideas
of liberty which
they apply to themselves.
- Americans and British attempt to keep NA out of the Revolution,
tribes remain neutral.
- Some NA support British and attack Americans in the West along
- Revolution weakens NA: Greater demand for Western land and
American to expand, hatred of NA who allied with the British,
view by Americans develop.
- End of Revolution does not end white-NA conflicts; NA continue
frontier, and white strike back to end NA restriction of white
- Revolution greatly affects women: Women are in charge of farms
while men are away at war, some women have nothing to fall back
on and become
poor; lead riots.
- Some women went of to army camps to be with their husbands
and serve as
auxiliary, supply, cooks, and cleaners; improve morale.
- Some women served in the army.
- Revolution does little to change roles of women in peace time;
of women are called into question by issues of, Rights
- Some women advocate womens rights, Judith Sergeant Murray
women should have
same opportunities to education as men.
- Revolution has little effect on roles of women in society.
- Unmarried women have some rights, married women have no rights;
autocrats of the family.
- Revolution even leads to some setbacks for women widows.
- Revolution strengthens patriarchic structure of the family;
positions subordinate to men, but women do challenge their status
in the family
and in society.
- Reevaluation of American life after the Revolution placed
more value on women
as mothers; mothers were to teach children Republican virtues
of the new United
States; women receive increased respect.
- All power directly from people; nature of citizenry decides
government, ideally virtuous independent property owners.
- Ideal of small freeholder central to American
- Republicans believe in equality of opportunity, talents determine
11. New State Governments (written, look at handling of executive
- States target to avoid problems of the British system in constitutions.
- Constitutions would be written down to avoid corruption.
- Executive would have limited power of appointment, and veto,
involvement in state legislatures; judiciary is also protected
- Constitutions expand power of the legislature and move toward
- Factiousness and instability of new state governments in 1770s
end executive can accomplish little leads to reforms,
lead by Massachusetts;
too much democracy.
- Writing of state constitutions changes from state legislatures
Constitutional conventions to prevent easy change by the legislatures
- New constitutions strengthen the executive with appointment
and veto power.
12. Place of Religion in new states
- New states move in direction of complete religious freedom;
believe religion should play some role in government, but do
not want to favor
* States take away privileges and funding they once gave to
churches; Virginia passes a Statute of Religious Freedom that
13. Place of Slavery in new states
- Slavery is abolished in states where slavery was weak
New England, and
- Slavery is amended in the South; all but 2 states prohibit
- Slavery survived in all Southern and Border states because
of great economic
investment of white Southerners, racist assumptions of African
inferiority, and an inability to envision an alternative; wolf
by the ears.
*Whites do not feel African Americans can be integrated into
American society as equals.
- Another reason slavery is not eliminated is because most Southerners
their economy is dependent on a large servile labor force, black
or white, and
is slavery is abolished, a new class of unpropertied free people
would have to
take their place, a contrast to the ideal of republicanism of
a population of
independent property owners; a threat to democracy to abolish
14. Articles of Confederation
- Adopted by the second Continental Congress in 1777 as a plan
- Political structure of the AOC is similar to existing one
at the time;
Congress is central authority of national authority, with expanded
declare war, conduct foreign policy, and borrow or issue money;
can levy taxes
directly on the people or raise troops taxes and troops
must come from the
- No executive
- Each state has one vote in congress 9 needed to pass
a measure, all 13 to
amend the AOC.
- Disagreements over the AOC: Small states want equal representation,
states, based on population; States with Western land wanted
to keep them, but
states without wanted lands to be given to the Confederation.
- AOC go into effect in 1781
- AOC lacks powers to deal with interstate issues or enforce
policy on the
states, and is unable to negotiate effectively with other nations.
15. Land Ordinances
- Land Ordinance of 1785
*Acreage of the Old Northwest (modern-day Ohio, Indiana, Illinois,
be sold; proceeds to pay national debt.
*Region split into townships six miles square, split into 36
sections of 1 sq. mi.
-- 16th section set aside to be sold ffor the benefit of public
- Northwest Ordinance of 1787 <
a. Old Northwest regions would first begin as a territory,
subordinate to the fed. gov't.
b. Territories would become a state when it had 60,000 inhabitants;
equal status w/ other
i. Significance: By not subordinating states,
it ensured peace between east
ii. Bill was farsighted: principles were carried over to other
c. Forbade slavery in Old Northwestnorth of the Ohio River.
i. Major advantage gained by the North; future states would
be slave and
thus ally themselves with the South.
ii. Southerners could cross state lines and reclaim fugitive
16. Battle of Fallen Timbers/Treaty of Greenville
- Violence between whites and NA reached it height in the Northwest
- NA refuse agreement with whites to cede lands (limit white
tribe lead by Little Turtle refuse any agreement.
- Battle of American forces and Miami NA, where American forces
defeated the NA.
- Miami sign the Treaty of Greenville ceding new lands to the
US, in exchange
for formal acknowledgement of their claim to the land they retained;
recognition by the US government of Indian sovereignty.
*US government recognizes NA lands can only be cede by the
- Conflicts in Northwest Territory suggest tenuousness of American
17. Shays Rebellion
- W. Mass., impoverished backcountry farmers losing farms through
foreclosures and tax delinquencies; many were ex-Revolutionary
- Led by Captain Daniel Shays, debtorss demanded cheap paper
taxes, and suspension of mortgage foreclosures.
- In 1786, Shays organized farmers to march on several cities:
courthouses and prevented the courts from seizing any more farms
debtors into prison.
- Next, marched to Springfield where state's Supreme Court was
in session and
where the arsenal was kept.
*Jan. 1787, Shays and 1,200 farmers marched on the arsenal.
i. Military opened fire; Shays was arrested but
*Propertied class feared that the Revolution had created a "mobocracy."
*Many prominent citizens cried out for a stronger central gov't.
*Rebellion was latest in series of west vs. west
i Bacons Rebellion (1676) in Virginia,
Leislers Rebellion (1691) in New York,
Paxton Boys (1764) in Pennsylvania, Regulator Movement (1771)
in North Carolina.