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Chapter 7

1. Agrarian Society to industrial:
- Screwed with Republican values because they wanted society of sturdy independent farmers, free from cities; localism and simplicity – proposed federal government with limited power.
- Almost failed because industrialism

2. Republican ideal of universal education:
- National “crusade against ignorance” – created public schools, argued for free education
- No states effectively enacted public school plans; education remained limited.

3. Judith Sargent Murray:
- 1784 published essay on women’s rights to education; women equal in intellect and potential; identical education and job opportunities.

4. Early Medicine:
- University of Pennsylvania 1st medical school by Benjamin Rush.
- Hard to overcome superstitions with modern science; useless and dangerous treatments: bleeding and purging, still used.
- New devotion to “scientific” method; limited women’s roles.

5. American Culture:
- Nationalism
- Wanted cultural independence; achieved through publication of own dictionary, texts.
- Students educated as Patriots.
- New American literature.

6. Second Great Awakening:
- Result of skepticism caused by separation of church and state that had lessened the church’s power.
-Evangelizing efforts by leaders of several Protestant Churches
- 1800 Surge of evangelism = “holy jerks,” camp meetings.
- Not really revived of old but growth of new denominations; Native Americans combine Christianity and native culture.

7. Beginnings of Industry:
- Modern industry in England diffuses to the United States establishing factories and leading to new technologies.

8. Cotton Gin: Eli Whitney’s invention that cleaned cotton and sped up production.

9. Transportation:
- Fulton and Livingston create steamboat; quicker travel, trade.
- “Turnpike Era,” begun with roads with tollbooths.

10. Capital in Washington D.C.:
- Poor choice of raw, uncompleted town.
- Symbol of unimportance of federal government.
- Small population; poor climate.
- Result of compromise with South.

11. Economy of Jefferson:
- Cut debt in 1/2 by cutting federal expenditures; abolished internal taxes so sale of Wes and were all government gains of revenue. ($$)
Scaled down armed forces and navy; establish West Point military academy.
12. Marbury vs. Madison:
- Establishes judicial review; court could declare law passed by congress unconstitutional.

13. Louisiana Purchase:
- Jefferson wanted New Orleans from French for trade.
- Napoleon offered entire territory for $15 million because no longer wanted an American empire.

14. Lewis and Clark:
-Jefferson planned expedition
- Kept diaries of travels, documented maps, plants, and animals.

15. Burr Conspiracy:
- Hamilton accused Burr of helping Federalists succeed; when Burr lost election challenged Hamilton to duel and killed Hamilton; burr becomes an outcast.
- Burr ran to West where there were rumors of him taking over Mexico and creating a Southwest empire for him to rule over.
*Jefferson ordered Burr arrested as traitor when Burr and a group of armed men were crossing Ohio River.
- Burr freed because Marshall; forever an outcast.

16. High Seas:
- British tried to impress American sailor; forced to work on ships.
- British refused to renounce Embargo Act to stop impressments.

17. Native Americans:
- Gained support but after death, movement failed.

18. War of 1812:
- America wars with Great Britain for conquest of Canada and stop impressments.
- American also battle with Native Americans.
- Peace talks end in Treaty of Ghent; little power.

19. Hartford Convention:
- Secession Effort.
- Federalist meeting to voice grievances and assert rights of nullification.
- New amendments against West and South; Republicans refused.