States joining the union adopted constitutions guaranteeing
all white males the vote and the right to hold office; many
states dropped or reduced property ownership or taxpaying requirements;
electorate was democratized. Daniel Webster disagreed
with these changes. Black voting was still restricted
and women had no right, but a larger percentage of white males
could now partake in elections.
Second Two-Party System:
Permanent institutionalized parties were newly desired part
of political process; occurred first at state level. Theory
= for a party to survive, it needed permanent opposition.
1830s marked the formation of the first fully formed 2-party
system to operate at national level.
Calhoun and Nullification:
Calhoun developed the theory of nullification to offer a moderate
alternative for the angry South Carolina population in place
of secession. Argued that since the federal govt. was
a creation of the states, the states were the final arbiters
of the constitutionality of federal laws; (could declare laws
Kitchen Cabinet/Peggy Eaton Affair:
Unofficial circle of Jacksons allies, he relied upon them
for advice; Peggy Eaton was John Eatons controversial
wife who was not accepted by other wives as a member of Washington
society. Jackson and Eaton were furious but Calhoun supported
his wife and contradicted the president. Calhoun lost
view of any further political success.
Debate over states rights versus national power.
Hayne charged that the proposition to suspend the sales of land
served the economic needs of the Northeast at the expense of
the West. Webster countered that Hayne (and Calhoun) were
attacking the integrity of the Union.
Democratic Dinner Toasts:
At the Democratic banquet, then president Jackson gave a condescending
toast directly to Calhoun amidst many guests.
Native American Removal:
First thought to be noble savages-- without real
civilizations but with enough dignity to function in one.
This attitude became more hostile by the 19th century.
All whites favored concept of Indian removal. 1,000 Cherokees
walked in the Trail of Tears in the winter of 1838, from Kentucky
to Oklahoma. There they were forced to live on harsh reservations.
Jackson and the Bank of United States:
His opposition to federal power and aristocratic privilege led
to Jacksons war against the bank. He supported hard
money, the concept of gold and silver being the only basis
for money. He hated the banks representation of
the wealthy and elite.
Presidential order for the government acceptance of only gold
Panic of 1837:
Panic included economic difficulties that devastated the Democrats
and aided the Whigs. Withdrawal of federal funds strained
the pet banks and they sold land for bank notes
that had no value. Banks had no money to back loans.
Sub-treasury system: government placed their funds in an independent
treasury at Washington and sub-treasuries at other locations.
This way, no private banks had the governments money or
Whigs and Democrats:
Democrats were crushed by the panic of 1837 while Whigs were
helped by it. Whigs were anti-Jacksonians who used the
same anti-elitist rhetoric as many Democrats to gain support
for a much more nationalist program. 1840 marked the first
election of a Whig president, William Henry Harrison, followed
shortly by Tyler.