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Chapter 9

Expanding the Electorate:
States joining the union adopted constitutions guaranteeing all white males the vote and the right to hold office; many states dropped or reduced property ownership or taxpaying requirements; electorate was democratized.  Daniel Webster disagreed with these changes.  Black voting was still restricted and women had no right, but a larger percentage of white males could now partake in elections.

Second Two-Party System:
Permanent institutionalized parties were newly desired part of political process; occurred first at state level.  Theory = for a party to survive, it needed permanent opposition.  1830s marked the formation of the first fully formed 2-party system to operate at national level.

Calhoun and Nullification:
Calhoun developed the theory of nullification to offer a moderate alternative for the angry South Carolina population in place of secession.  Argued that since the federal govt. was a creation of the states, the states were the final arbiters of the constitutionality of federal laws; (could declare laws “null”).

Kitchen Cabinet/Peggy Eaton Affair:
Unofficial circle of Jackson’s allies, he relied upon them for advice; Peggy Eaton was John Eaton’s controversial wife who was not accepted by other wives as a member of Washington society.  Jackson and Eaton were furious but Calhoun supported his wife and contradicted the president.  Calhoun lost view of any further political success. 

Webster-Hayne Debate:
Debate over state’s rights versus national power.  Hayne charged that the proposition to suspend the sales of land served the economic needs of the Northeast at the expense of the West.  Webster countered that Hayne (and Calhoun) were attacking the integrity of the Union. 

Democratic Dinner Toasts:
At the Democratic banquet, then president Jackson gave a condescending toast directly to Calhoun amidst many guests.

Native American Removal:
First thought to be “noble savages”-- without real civilizations but with enough dignity to function in one.  This attitude became more hostile by the 19th century.  All whites favored concept of Indian removal.  1,000 Cherokees walked in the Trail of Tears in the winter of 1838, from Kentucky to Oklahoma.  There they were forced to live on harsh reservations. 

Jackson and the Bank of United States:
His opposition to federal power and aristocratic privilege led to Jackson’s war against the bank.  He supported “hard money,” the concept of gold and silver being the only basis for money.  He hated the bank’s representation of the wealthy and elite. 

Specie Circular:
Presidential order for the government acceptance of only gold and silver.

Panic of 1837:
Panic included economic difficulties that devastated the Democrats and aided the Whigs.  Withdrawal of federal funds strained the “pet” banks and they sold land for bank notes that had no value.  Banks had no money to back loans. 

Sub-treasury system: government placed their funds in an independent treasury at Washington and sub-treasuries at other locations.  This way, no private banks had the government’s money or control.

Whigs and Democrats:
Democrats were crushed by the panic of 1837 while Whigs were helped by it.  Whigs were anti-Jacksonians who used the same anti-elitist rhetoric as many Democrats to gain support for a much more nationalist program.  1840 marked the first election of a Whig president, William Henry Harrison, followed shortly by Tyler.